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سنگ ساختمانی تراورتن چیست؟

سنگ ساختمانی تراورتن چیست؟

تراورتن سنگ آهکی است که در اثر فعالیت چشمه های آب گرم تشکیل می شود . بطور کلی در طی فرآیند تشکیل ذخایر تراورتن، آبهای گرم از بین طبقات سنگ های کربناتی به ویژه سنگ آهک عبور می کنند و به دلیل اسیدی بودن، کربنات کلسیم موجود در این سنگ ها را حل کرده و به صورت محلول کربناتی و بی کربناتی با خود به سطح زمین منتقل می کنند .

در سطح زمین به دلیل افت فشار، کاهش حرارت آزاد شدن دی اکسیدکربن و همچنین تبخیر، بلورهای کلسیت تشکیل شده و به صورت لایه های نازکی برروی یکدیگر رسوب می کنند . پایداری شرایط ذکر شده و تداوم تشکیل لایه های کلسیتی، باعث به وجودآمدن لایه های یکنواختی از کربنات کلسیم متخلخل ( تراورتن ) می گردد که ضخامت آنهااز چند سانتی متر تا چند متر متغیر است و معمولا با شیبی ملایم بر روی لایه های سنگی قدیمی تر قرار می گیرند .

تغییرشرایط رسوب گذاری می تواند باعث وقفه ای در تشکل این لایه ها گردد که حاصل آن به وجودآمدن یک سطح جدایش بین لایه های متوالی سنگ تراورتن می باشد . ضخامت کلی لایه های تراورتن معمولا از چند متر تاچند ده متر متفاوت است . وجود حباب های هوا و همچنین نا خالصی های آهن دو ظرفیتی، آهن سه ظرفیتی، منگنز، سیلیس، مواد آلی و غیره باعث ایجاد تنوع رنگی قابل ملاحظه ای درذخایر تراورتن به رنگ های سفید، شیری، کرم تا بژ، صورتی، قهوه ای، طلائی، زرد، لیموئی، قرمز و سبز می توانندتشکیل شوند .
علاوه بر تنوع رنگی که باعث ایجاد زیبایی خاصی در این نوع ها می شود٬ این نوع سنگ را می توان از دو جهت مختلف برش داد . در صورتی که این نوع سنگ در جهت عمود برلایه بندی آن برده شود (Veincut )، لایه های مختلف آن در سطح پلاک بریده شده نمایان خواهند شد که توازی ٬ تنوع رنگی و تغییرات ضخامت لایه های رنگی در هنگام نصب باعث ایجاد هماهنگی خاصی در نمای ساختمان می شود.اما اگر تراورتن به موازات لایه ها بریده شود (fleuricut) یا (crosscut) منظره ای با اشکال و دوایر متحد المرکز به وجود می آید .

حفرات سنگ تراورتن معمولا به وسیله مخلوطی از سیمان سفید و میل ٬ ترکیبات اپوکسی رنگی یا رزین های پلی استر پر می شوند و یا به صورت پر نشده مورد استفاده قرار می گیرند . علاوه بر این از این سنگ ها به صورت ساب خورده (polished) ٬بدون ساب (unpolished) ٬ خشن شده (Honed) ٬ قدیمی شده (antique ) و غیره استفاده می شود .

به دلیلآن که ذخایر تراورتن اصولا ذخایری جواب و متعلق به عصر حاضر هستند٬ معمولافاقد چین خوردگی هستند و یا به ندرت چین های بسیار ملایمی در آنها دیده می شود . به همین علت میزان خردشدگی و پیچیدگی لایه های سنگی ذخایر تراورتن بسیارکم از ذخایر مرمریت٬ سنگ چینی٬سنگ لوح٬ ماسه سنگ و یا حتی سنگ آهک است .
بنابراین میزان کوپ دهی و پلاک دهی این نوع سنگ بسیار بهتر از سنگ های ذکر شده می باشد و پلاکها و اسلب های این نوع سنگ با ضخامت ها و ابعاد متفاوت به راحتی قابل استحصال است. از تراورتن بطور معمول برای کفپوش٬ پوشش دیوار٬ آب چکان و اطراف شومینه استفاده می شود . ذخایر بزرگ تراورتن بیشتر در کشور های ایتالیا٬ ایران٬ ترکیه آمریکا و مکزیک وجود دارد .

2-تعریف تراورتن ازدیدگاه انجمن استاندارد ایتالیا مستقر در میلان:

تراورتن یک سنگ آهکی رسوبی ودر واقع کلسیت متخلخل یا سلولی لا یه ای و تا حدودی بلورین با منشاشیمیایی است که ساختار اسفنجی دارد که بصورت شیمیایی ته نشین میگردد و برای کارهای تزئینی و ساختمانی مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد.

3- ﮊنز و شرایط تشکیل تراورتن ها :

تراورتن زمانی تشکیل می شود که بی کربنات کلسیم در آب چشمه گاز دی اکسید کربن ٬ آب کربنات کلسیم تجزیه شود . پدیده ها فیزیکی شیمیایی یا تبخیری نقش بیشتری دارد و تراورتن چشمه ای را بوجود آورده است . گردش آب باعث می شودCo2 با آبهای جوی از درون شکستگی ها و درزها سطح زیرین زمین راه یابد و سنگهای آهکی مسیر خود را حل و بصورت چشمه های آهکسازی در سطح زمین (بیرون) رسوب دهد :

CaCo3+Co2 Ca(Hco3)2

و تراورتن از ته نشست در محلول های عموما داغ چشمه های کربناتی معمولا در کف حوضچه های کم عمق تشکیل می شود و می توان گفت تراورتن معمولا حاصل رسوب مواد آهکی در آب راکد است .

4-دلایل مصارف تراورتن ها بعنوان سنگ ساختمانی :
مقاومت قابل قبول

– برش و صیقل پذیری ایده آل

– شرایط استخراج ایده آل بدلیل اینکه اغلب با لایه بندی افقی شیب کم و در نقاط کم ارتفاع و قابل دستیابی تکمیل می گردند .

– عدم وجود ساختارهای تکتو نیکی بر روی ذخایر تراورتن ها به دلیل جوان بودن ( کواترنر ) بعد از فازهای کوهزایی مختلف زمین شناسی یافته اند

– زیبایی ظاهر

– وجود تخخل جهت چسبیدن به ملات

– ارزانی نسبت به سایر سنگها .
5-تشکیل تراورتن ها رنگی :

چشمه های آهک ساز٬ در راستای گسل ها از آبهای جوی و ماگمائی تغذیه می کنند .

آبهای جوی با نفوذ در اعماق زمین ضمن گرم شدن و همراه شدن با گازهایی چون So2+ Co2 و عناصری مانند Mg, Fe و غیره به طبقات بالایی زمین رانده می شوند ٬ در مسیر راه غلظت کربنات کلسیم بالا رفته ٬ در نهایت در سطح زمین همزمان با افت درجه حرارت و فشار و ترخیص گازهای اضافی و تغییرات ph زمینه تشکیل تراورتن را بوجود می آورند .

بی کربنات کلسیم به کربنات کلسیم تبدیل و رسوبگذاری می شود . تغییر رﮊیم آبدهی که احتمالا فصلی است باعث تغییر میزان مواد رنگی مانند Al , Mg و غیره می گردد و لایه های متعدد با رنگهای مختلف را تشکیل می دهد .

در خصوص درجه حرارت عناصر همراه گازهای موجود دراینگونه چشمه های معمولی آهکساز و پی جریان آب ٬ باید بررسی های مستمر در ساعات مخالف شب و روز و اوقات مختلف سال نیاز است تا نتیجه گیری دقیقتری از مقایسه اطلاعات آماری میسر باشد .

ه گاز دی اکسید کربن ٬ آب کربنات کلسیم تجزیه شود . پدیده ها فیزیکی شیمیایی یا تبخیری نقش بیشتری دارد و تراورتن چشمه ای را بوجود آورده است . گردش آب باعث می شودCo2 با آبهای جوی از درون شکستگی ها و درزها سطح زیرین زمین راه یابد و سنگهای آهکی مسیر خود را حل و بصورت چشمه های آهکسازی در سطح زمین (بیرون) رسوب دهد :

CaCo3+Co2 Ca(Hco3)2

و تراورتن از ته نشست در محلول های عموما داغ چشمه های کربناتی معمولا در کف حوضچه های کم عمق تشکیل می شود و می توان گفت تراورتن معمولا حاصل رسوب مواد آهکی در آب راکد است .

4-دلایل مصارف تراورتن ها بعنوان سنگ ساختمانی :
مقاومت قابل قبول

– برش و صیقل پذیری ایده آل

– شرایط استخراج ایده آل بدلیل اینکه اغلب با لایه بندی افقی شیب کم و در نقاط کم ارتفاع و قابل دستیابی تکمیل می گردند .

– عدم وجود ساختارهای تکتو نیکی بر روی ذخایر تراورتن ها به دلیل جوان بودن ( کواترنر ) بعد از فازهای کوهزایی مختلف زمین شناسی یافته اند

– زیبایی ظاهر

– وجود تخخل جهت چسبیدن به ملات

– ارزانی نسبت به سایر سنگها .
5-تشکیل تراورتن ها رنگی :

چشمه های آهک ساز٬ در راستای گسل ها از آبهای جوی و ماگمائی تغذیه می کنند .

آبهای جوی با نفوذ در اعماق زمین ضمن گرم شدن و همراه شدن با گازهایی چون So2+ Co2 و عناصری مانند Mg, Fe و غیره به طبقات بالایی زمین رانده می شوند ٬ در مسیر راه غلظت کربنات کلسیم بالا رفته ٬ در نهایت در سطح زمین همزمان با افت درجه حرارت و فشار و ترخیص گازهای اضافی و تغییرات ph زمینه تشکیل تراورتن را بوجود می آورند .

بی کربنات کلسیم به کربنات کلسیم تبدیل و رسوبگذاری می شود . تغییر رﮊیم آبدهی که احتمالا فصلی است باعث تغییر میزان مواد رنگی مانند Al , Mg و غیره می گردد و لایه های متعدد با رنگهای مختلف را تشکیل می دهد .

در خصوص درجه حرارت عناصر همراه گازهای موجود دراینگونه چشمه های معمولی آهکساز و پی جریان آب ٬ باید بررسی های مستمر در ساعات مخالف شب و روز و اوقات مختلف سال نیاز است تا نتیجه گیری دقیقتری از مقایسه اطلاعات آماری میسر باشد .

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